Pain is a perfectly familiar sensation for everyone. According to physicians, it is a transmitted inflammation of the peripheral stimulus from the several stages to the central nervous system. In each of these stages, pain may be reduced by intrinsic pain-suppressing systems or medications. Removing the cause of pain in the treatment of the disease must be painless and leave no trace of nerve or other body systems. When it is treated incorrectly or late, the pain becomes chronic. No one denies the right of patients to pain relief. However, despite the huge efforts of physicians, pain continues to be one of the worst symptoms of illness and, therefore, the disappointment of patients with medical advances. As published in the medical literature, more than two-thirds of patients with oncological diseases suffer from pain. Pain in such patients is a major symptom of the disease. In addition, it often hurts not only due to an oncological illness, but also as a consequence of the treatment of this disease (due to burns after radiotherapy, after the development of phlebitis after chemotherapy, the formation of cracks, etc.).
Another major disadvantage is the fact that chronic diseases (the main symptom of which is usually pain) is exacerbated by the onset of cancer treatment or its sudden spread.
Oncological pain is suppressed by neopyates and opiates and supportive medicines (the latter either increase the effects of opiates and neopia, or help suppress their unwanted effects – nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorders, etc.). Neopyates are simple analgesics (paracetamol, aspirin), as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, nimesulin, dexketoprofen, etc.). Opiates are light and strong. The first group includes tramadol, codeine, dihydrocodeine. Strong opiates include morphine preparations (dipidolor, fentanyl patch, etc.). All opiates have a side effect, and together with them, they usually receive the same medicines that reduce their effect. According to physicians, if the patient is able to swallow, it is best to use oral anesthetics. When non-optics are used, the so-called “ceiling” dose is reached, that is, when they no longer delay pain and undesirable effects, neopyates are replaced by other drugs or are given together with opiates (as ancillary medicines). Pain relieving drugs can be prescribed for subcutaneous and intravenous injections (it lasts 4-6 hours). Long-acting tablets, suspensions, and candles (up to 12 hours) may also be used. Another form of pain reliever is a patch. Durogesic is used in Lithuania – a fentanyl patch. It is effective for 48 or 72 hours (the duration of exposure depends on the individual metabolic rate).
It is an indispensable tool for active living for working and living patients. This patch is glued to the upper body and replaced every three days. There is a reservoir inside the patch that gives out a dose of fentanyl per hour (25, 50, 75 or 100 mg). Select a dose that should last for 72 hours. The use of such patches avoids peak concentrations of the drug, and is less likely to get used to the drug.
The first day after the patch is applied, the other painkillers are still to be used, since the effect of the patch is felt only after 17 hours. According to the physicians, such patches are not suitable for patients with exhausted, fever, sweating. In order to avoid multiple injections, the so-called morphine pump or continuous infusion syringe is suitable. This method of pain relief can be used in patients who can not take oral medications or stick patches. With a 10-ml syringe equipped with a needle, a catheter with a needle is inserted into a swath or inserted into the epidural space, and the daily dose of morphine or tramadol is gradually absorbed into the body. If the patient is conscious, he can regulate the rate of drug dripping. In Lithuania, there is a deficiency in pain relieving patches? Although we have long forgotten the times, when not all pharmacies managed to find even the simplest tablets of valerian or calcium, it turns out that there are so-called “defective” medicines. One of these is Durogesic, the already mentioned pain reliever, fentanyl patches. This was confirmed to us by relatives of Elena J., who suffers from severe malignant disease. Ellen J. had previously had 25 milligrams per hour to deal with severe pain, but with time it took 50, and only 75 milligrams per hour of the drug containing the patches were already effective.